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  Section 1 Use of English

  Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Happy people work differently. They’re more productive, more creative, and willing to take greater risks. And new research suggests that happiness might influence__1__firm’s work, too.
  Companies located in places with happier people invest more, according to a recent research paper.__2__, firms in happy places spend more on R&D (research and development). That’s because happiness is linked to the kind of longer-term thinking__3__for making investments for the future.
  The researchers wanted to know if the__4__and inclination for risk-taking that come with happiness would__5__the way companies invested. So they compared U.S. cities’ average happiness__6__by Gallup polling with the investment activity of publicly traded firms in those areas.
  __7__enough, firms’ investment and R&D intensity were correlated with the happiness of the area in which they were__8__.But is it really happiness that’s linked to investment, or could something else about happier cities__9__why firms there spend more on R&D? To find out, the researchers controlled for various__10__that might make firms more likely to invest – like size, industry, and sales – and for indicators that a place was__11__to live in, like growth in wages or population. The link between happiness and investment generally__12__even after accounting for these things.
  The correlation between happiness and investment was particularly strong for younger firms, which the authors__13__to “less codified decision making process” and the possible presence of “younger and less__14__managers who are more likely to be influenced by sentiment.” The relationship was__15__stronger in places where happiness was spread more__16__.Firms seem to invest more in places where most people are relatively happy, rather than in places with happiness inequality.
  __17__ this doesn’t prove that happiness causes firms to invest more or to take a longer-term view, the authors believe it at least__18__at that possibility. It’s not hard to imagine that local culture and sentiment would help__19__how executives think about the future. “It surely seems plausible that happy people would be more forward-thinking and creative and__20__R&D more than the average,” said one researcher.

  1. [A] why                   [B] where                  [C] how                     [D] when
  2. [A] In return           [B] In particular         [C] In contrast           [D] In conclusion
  3. [A] sufficient          [B] famous                [C] perfect                  [D] necessary
  4. [A] individualism    [B] modernism         [C] optimism              [D] realism
  5. [A] echo                 [B] miss                     [C] spoil                     [D] change
  6. [A] imagined         [B] measured             [C] invented               [D] assumed
  7. [A] Sure                 [B] Odd                      [C] Unfortunate         [D] Often
  8. [A] advertised       [B] divided              [C] overtaxed             [D] headquartered
  9. [A] explain             [B] overstate             [C] summarize            [D] emphasize
  10.[A] stages             [B] factors                 [C] levels                    [D] methods
  11.[A] desirable         [B] sociable               [C] reputable             [D] reliable
  12.[A] resumed         [B] held                     [C]emerged                [D] broke
  13.[A] attribute         [B] assign                  [C] transfer                 [D]compare
  14.[A] serious           [B] civilized                [C] ambitious              [D]experienced
  15.[A] thus                [B] instead                 [C] also                       [D] never
  16.[A] rapidly            [B] regularly              [C] directly                  [D] equally
  17.[A] After               [B] Until                     [C] While                    [D] Since
  18.[A] arrives            [B] jumps                   [C] hints                      [D] strikes
  19.[A] shape             [B] rediscover            [C] simplify                  [D] share                    20.[A] pray for          [B] lean towards        [C] give away             [D] send out

  1.  [標準答案][C]how
  [選項分析]? 根據語境,“新發現表明:快樂可能會影響工作__的穩定。”[A] 為什么 [B] 哪里 [C] 怎樣,多么 [D] 當…時候。根據語義分析,C選項填入原文,譯為“快樂可能會影響工作是有多么穩定”,C為正確選項。

  2.  [標準答案][B]In particular
  [選項分析][A] 反過來 [B] 尤其是 [C] 相反 [D] 總的來說 根據前文語境,第二段第一句譯為“根據近期的研究,擁有更多快樂的人的公司會投資更多”。而第二句“_______那些在快樂氛圍中的公司會做更多的研發以及發展。“第二句是在第一句的基礎上進一步強調說明,因此B選項更符合語境要求。

  3.  [標準答案] [D]necessary
  [選項分析][A]充足的 [B] 著名的 [C] 完美的 [D] 必要的 首先,根據本句題干 “That’s?because happiness is linked to the kind of longer-term thinking 3 for making investments for the future.”譯為“因為快樂與對未來投資有______長遠考慮相聯系。”要求填寫形容詞, 我們要考慮其搭配與其修飾成分??崭裉幋钆浣樵~for, 并且修飾“長遠考慮”。因此D選項最符合語境要求。

  4.  [標準答案][C]optimism
  [選項分析][A]個人主義 [B] 現代主義 [C] 樂觀主義 [D] 現實主義 本題考查同后綴的名詞辨析。根據原文主旨,探討“happy people”與公司的關系。那么,衡量四個選項,只有C選項符合主旨要求。

  5.  [標準答案][D]change
  [選項分析] [A]發出回聲 [B] 想念,錯過 [C] 破壞 [D] 改變  根據原文語境,“would 5 the way companies invested.”本題考查動賓搭配,賓語為“公司投資的方式”只有D選項搭配最為合理。

  [選項分析] [A]想象 [B] 衡量,測量 [C] 發明 [D] 假定,設想 “So they compared U.S. cities’average happiness 6 by Gallup polling with the investment activity of publicly traded firms in those areas.”譯為“他們把蓋洛普咨詢公司所_____的美國城市平均幸福指數與該地區的上市公司投資活躍度進行對比。” 根據原文語境,蓋洛普咨詢公司所做的應該是一個“既定事實”所以排除ACD。因此,B選項為最佳選項。

  [選項分析] [A]確信的 [B] 奇怪的 [C] 不幸運的 [D] 經常的  本題為固定搭配“sure enough” 譯為“足以肯定的是,”

  [選項分析] [A]廣告的 [B] 劃分的 [C] 課稅過重的 [D]位于總部的 根據原文“ firms’ investment and R&D intensity were correlated with the happiness of the area in which they were 8 . ”譯為“足以肯定的是,公司投資與研發力度與公司______的幸福指數相關。”in which 引導表示地點的定語從句,先行詞為area.對比四個選項,ABC不足以說明此地點的真實含義。因此,D選項,搭配前文area,構成“總部所在地”最為合理。

  [選項分析] [A]解釋 [B] 夸大 [C] 概述[D]重點強調 根據原文“…or ould something else about happier cities 9 why firms there spend more on R&D?” A選項 “explain”常和后文 “why” 搭配使用。

  [選項分析] [A]階段 [B] 因素 [C] 等級[D]方法  根據原文語境“To find out, the researchers controlled for various 10 that might make firms more likely to invest – like size, industry, and sales…”本題中,破折號后面 “大小,產業,銷售”這些都是 “讓公司有更多投資的”因素。因此,B選項最符合原文語境。

  11.[標準答案] [A] desirable
  [考點分析] 上下文語義和形容詞
  [選項分析] 該空填的是形容詞,用來修飾前面的名詞place,并且在意義上也是對后面like growth in wages or population的解釋,可以看出來應該是填褒義詞,并且能修飾place.所以只有[A]desirable合適的 符合文章。[B]social 社交的 [C]reputable 受尊敬的 [D]reliable 可依靠的。

  12. [標準答案] [B]held
  [考點分析] 上下文語義及動詞詞義辨析
  [選項分析] 該句算是這一段的總結句,該段整體在描述幸福與投資之間的關系,而這一link就只能得出了,只有[B]held ”得出”符合語境。A  resumed “重新開始”,C  emerge “浮現”,D  broke “破壞”。

  13.[標準答案] [A] attribute
  [考點分析] 上下文邏輯關系以及動詞詞組辨析
  [選項分析]該空是一個which引導的定語從句的謂語動詞所在地,動詞的賓語就是前面的主句,強調“幸福與投資之間的關系尤其適用于新公司”這一結論與后面“所做決定會偏草率”之間的關系,能看出是一個因果關系,因此答案選擇[A]attribute 與to 搭配表示“歸因于……”,而[B]assign to表示“指派”[C]transfer to“轉移到”[D]compare to“與……比較”均不符合題意。

  14.[標準答案] [D] experienced
  [考點分析] 上下文語義及形容詞詞義辨析
  [選項分析] 此處很簡單,前面有一個并列連詞and, 與前面的young一致修飾managers,強調新公司的領導年輕并缺乏經驗,只有[D]experienced最合適。

  15.    [標準答案] [C] also
  [考點分析] 上下文邏輯關系以及副詞詞義辨析
  16. [標準答案] [D]equally
  [考點分析] 上下文語義及副詞詞義辨析
  [選項分析] 這題是考察副詞修飾spread, 但是更要注意的是該句“這種關系在員工幸福指數_____的公司尤為明顯。公司似乎樂于投資那些相對快樂的員工所在的部門,而不是那些不快樂的部門。”中該空與后面的inequality形成復現關系,所以很容易判斷出答案選擇[D]equally。

  17. [標準答案] [C] while
  [考點分析] 上下文邏輯關系
  [選項分析] 該題是典型的考察上下文邏輯關系的題目,因此著力點應該放在上一段和這一段之間的關系。這一段第一句明確說出“這并不證明是幸福導致公司大量投資……”,所以兩句話之間是一個轉折關系,選擇while.

  18. [標準答案] [C]hints
  [考點分析] 上下文語義及動詞詞義辨析
  [選項分析] 該題可以看出是考察動詞與at的固定搭配,arrive at是“到達,抵達”,jump at是“撲向;欣然接受”hint at是“暗示” strike at是“襲擊,攻擊”,文章中的at least 和that possibility論證了這是一種可能,只有hint at有這層含義。

  19.    [標準答案] [A]shape
  [考點分析] 上下文語義及動詞詞義辨析  reshape  重塑
  [選項分析] 根據上下文應該選一個“影響”未來看法含義的動詞,[B]是“再發現”[C]是“使簡化,使單純”[D]是“分享”所以可以均可以排除,A 是“塑造,形成,影響”,所以A項是最佳答案。

  20.  [標準答案] [B]lean towards
  [選項分析] 上下文語義及動詞詞組詞義辨析
  [考點分析] 本空考察動詞詞組,且該詞組詞義應與and前面意思保持一致,且作用對象為研發。[A]pray for 祈禱 [B]lean towards 傾向 [C]give away 放棄,泄露 [D]send out 放出,給予。只有[B]選項能表達一種遞進含義。


  Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

  Part A
  Directions:Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

  Text 1
  It’s true that high-school coding classes aren’t essential for learning computer science in college. Students without experience can catch up after a few introductory courses, said Tom Cortina, the assistant dean at Carnegie Mellon’s School of Computer Science.
  However, Cortina said, early exposure is beneficial. When younger kids learn computer science, they learn that it’s not just a confusing, endless string of letters and numbers — but a tool to build apps, or create artwork, or test hypotheses. It’s not as hard for them to transform their thought processes as it is for older students. Breaking down problems into bite-sized chunks and using code to solve them becomes normal. Giving more children this training could increase the number of people interested in the field and help fill the jobs gap, Cortina said.
  Students also benefit from learning something about coding before they get to college, where introductory computer-science classes are packed to the brim, which can drive the less-experienced or-determined students away.
  The Flatiron School, where people pay to learn programming, started as one of the many coding bootcamps that’s become popular for adults looking for a career change. The high-schoolers get the same curriculum, but “we try to gear lessons toward things they’re interested in,” said Victoria Friedman, an instructor. For instance, one of the apps the students are developing suggests movies based on your  mood.
  The students in the Flatiron class probably won’t drop out of high school and build the next Facebook. Programming languages have a quick turnover, so the “Ruby on Rails” language they learned may not even be relevant by the time they enter the job market. But the skills they learn — how to think logically through a problem and
  organize the results — apply to any coding language, said Deborah Seehorn, an education consultant for the state of North Carolina.
  Indeed, the Flatiron students might not go into IT at all. But creating a future  army of coders is not the sole purpose of the classes. These kids are going to be surrounded by computers — in  their pockets, in their offices, in their homes — for the rest of their lives. The younger they learn how computers think, how to coax the machine into producing what they want — the earlier they learn that they have the power to do that — the better.

  21. Cortina holds that early exposure to computer science makes it easier to____.
  A. complete future job training
  B. remodel the way of thinking
  C. formulate logical hypotheses
  D. perfect artwork production
  22. In delivering lessons for high-schoolers, Flatiron has considered their____.
  A. experience
  B. academic backgrounds
  C. career prospects
  D. interest
  23. Deborah Seehorn believes that the skills learned at Flatiron will____.
  A. help students learn other computer languages
  B. have to be upgraded when new technologies come
  C. need improving when students look for jobs
  D. enable students to make big quick money
  24. According to the last paragraph, Flatiron students are expected to____.
  A. compete with a future army of programmers
  B. stay longer in the information technology industry
  C. become better prepared for the digitalized world
  D. bring forth innovative computer technologies
  25. The word “coax” (Line4, Para.6) is closest in meaning to____.
  A. challenge
  B. persuade
  C. frighten
  D. misguide

  Text 1

  21 答案 B remodel the way of thinking.
  Reshape 重塑    remold 重塑
  Mold 名詞-模型 模子  動詞-形成塑造
  解析:此題是文中人物觀點題。根據Cortina定位到第二段前三句。Cortina認為盡早接觸計算機科學是有益的。第三句It’s not as hard for them to transform their thought processes as it is for older students. 譯為在轉變思維程序方面小孩不像年齡較大的學生一樣困難,即B remodel the way of thinking 轉變思維方式即為同義替換。

  22 答案 D  interest
  解析:此題是細節題。根據關鍵詞Friedman定位到第四段第二句but之后引號里面內容“我們試圖讓課程符合學生興趣”,故而D interest為正確答案。

  23 答案 A  help students learn other computer languages
  解析:文中人物觀點題。題干問的是Deborah Seehorn認為在Flatiron這里所學到的技能將能怎么樣,據此定位到第五段But處,和題干基本一致,該句指出“But the skills they learn…appl to any coding language”,意思是他們學到的技能可以應用于任何編碼語言。對比答案選項,A選項的意思是“幫助學生學習其他的計算機語言”屬于原文定位處的同義替換。

  24 答案 C  become better prepared for the digitalized world
  解析:細節題。題干指出:根據最后一段,Flatiron的學生被期望去干什么。據此定位到最后一段的These kids are going to be處,是題干的同義復現。定位句“These kids are…be surrounded by computers for the rest of their lives. The younger they learn how computers think…….the better.”,意思是學生們越早學越好。C選項“為數字化的未來做更好的準備”是同義概述。

  25 答案 B  persuade
  解析:詞義句意題,結合上下文來解題。根據coax此單詞,定位到最后一段最后一句“how to coax the machine into producing what they want”,考察固定搭配“persuade…into…”。A選項挑戰,B選項勸服,C選項使恐慌,D選項誤導??忌鲱}時一定要注意結合上下文來推測生詞的詞義,這是命題人的出題 規律。

  Text 2
  Biologists estimate that as many as 2 million lesser prairie chickens---a kind of bird living on stretching grasslands—once lent red to the often gray landscape of the midwestern and southwestern United States. But just some 22,000 birds remain today, occupying about 16% of the species’ historic range.
  The crash was a major reason the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS)decided to formally list the bird as threatened. “The lesser prairie chicken is in a desperate situation,” said USFWS Director Daniel Ashe. Some environmentalists, however, were disappointed. They had pushed the agency to designate the bird as “endangered,” a status that gives federal officials greater regulatory power to crack down on threats. But Ashe and others argued that the“threatened” tag gave the federal government flexibility to try out new, potentially less confrontational conservations approaches. In particular, they called for forging closer collaborations with western state governments, which are often uneasy with federal action and with the private landowners who control an estimated 95% of the prairie chicken’s habitat.
  Under the plan, for example, the agency said it would not prosecute landowner or businesses that unintentionally kill, harm, or disturb the bird, as long as they had signed a range—wide management plan to restore prairie chicken habitat. Negotiated by USFWS and the states, the plan requires individuals and businesses that damage habitat as part of their operations to pay into a fund to replace every acre destroyed with 2 new acres of suitable habitat. The fund will also be used to compensate landowners who set aside habitat, USFWS also set an interim goal of restoring prairie chicken populations to an annual average of 67,000 birds over the next 10 years. And it gives the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA), a coalition of state agencies, the job of monitoring progress. Overall, the idea is to let “states” remain in the driver’s seat for managing the species,” Ashe said.
  Not everyone buys the win-win rhetoric Some Congress members are trying to block the plan, and at least a dozen industry groups, four states, and three environmental groups are challenging it in federal court Not surprisingly, doesn’t go far enough “The federal government is giving responsibility for managing the bird to the same industries that are pushing it to extinction,” says biologist Jay Lininger.

  26. The major reason for listing the lesser prairie as threatened is____
  [A]its drastically decreased population
  [B]the underestimate of the grassland acreage
  [C]a desperate appeal from some biologists
  [D]the insistence of private landowners
  27.The “threatened” tag disappointed some environmentalists in that it_____
  [A]was a give-in to governmental pressure
  [B]would involve fewer agencies in action
  [C]granted less federal regulatory power
  [D]went against conservation policies
  28.It can be learned from Paragraph3 that unintentional harm-doers will not be prosecuted if they_____
  [A]agree to pay a sum for compensation
  [B]volunteer to set up an equally big habitat
  [C]offer to support the WAFWA monitoring job
  [D]promise to raise funds for USFWS operations
  29.According to Ashe, the leading role in managing the species in______
  [A]the federal government
  [B]the wildlife agencies
  [C]the landowners
  [D]the states
  30.Jay Lininger would most likely support_______
  [A]industry groups
  [B]the win-win rhetoric
  [C]environmental groups
  [D]the plan under challenge
  26 答案 A  its drastically decreased population
  解析:此題是原因細節題。根據關鍵詞定位到第一段But前后關于lesser prairie chickens 數量2million和22,000的強烈對比。此外第二段第二句“the lesser prairie chicken is in a desperate situation”都可以得知A its drastically decreased population 數量的急劇下降為正確答案。

  27 答案 C granted less federal regulatory powers
  Grant 動詞-同意允許;授予賦予
  解析:此題是原因細節題。根據關鍵詞定位到第二段第四句,They had …, a state that gives federal officials greater regulatory power. 而But 之后是截然相反的事實,即政府授予了更少的管理權。故而C granted less federal regulatory powers為正確答案。

  28 答案 A  agree to pay a sum for compensation賠償補償 薪酬
  解析:推斷題。題干問的是從第三段推出來:無意傷害的那些人是不會被檢舉的如果怎么樣。根據題干定位到第三段首句“it would not prosecute….as long as ….”,題干中問的if即原文的as long as的同意替換,原文as long as的意思是:只要他們簽署了計劃。下一句說道,該計劃要求個體和企業去支付基金。對應選項A選項“贊同支付賠償”屬于同義替換。

  29 答案 D  the states
  解析:此題是細節題。根據關鍵詞定位到第三段最后一句the idea is to let the“states”remain in the driver’s seat for managing the species, Ashe said. 其中in the driver’s seat對應題干中的the leading role, 故而D states為正確答案。

  30 答案 C  environmental groups群體團體
  解析:文中人物觀點題。題干問的是Jay Lininger最可能支持誰,大寫人名定位到末段最后一句。最后一句提到:生物學家Jay Lininger說道聯邦政府要把責任推給導致鳥類滅絕的企業,顯然是對政府和企業的反對。再往前看一句,指出:企業團體和政府部門觀點一致,環境學家與其觀點恰巧一致。因此,Jay Lininger最支持環境團體的觀點了。

  Text 3
  That everyone’s too busy these days is a cliché. But one specific complaint is made especially mournfully: There’s never any time to read.
  What makes the problem thornier is that the usual time-management techniques don’t seem sufficient. The web’s full of articles offering tips on making time to read: “Give up TV” or  “Carry a book with you at all times” But in my experience, using such methods to free up the odd 30 minutes doesn’t work. Sit down to read and the flywheel of work-related thoughts keeps spinning-or else you’re so exhausted that a challenging book’s the last thing you need. The modern mind, Tim Parks, a novelist and critic, writes, “is overwhelmingly inclined toward communication…It is not simply that one is interrupted; it is that one is actually inclined to interruption”. Deep reading requires not just time, but a special kind of time which can’t be obtained merely by becoming more efficient.
  In fact, “becoming more efficient” is part of the problem. Thinking of time as a resource to be maximised means you approach it instrumentally, judging any given moment as well spent only in so far as it advances progress toward some goal immersive reading, by contrast, depends on being willing to risk inefficiency,  goallessness, even time-wasting. Try to slot it as a to-do list item and you’ll manage only goal-focused reading-useful, sometimes, but not the most fulfilling kind. “The future comes at us like empty bottles along an unstoppable and nearly infinite conveyor belt,” writes Gary Eberle in his book Sacred Time, and “we feel a pressure to fill these different-sized bottles (days, hours, minutes)as they pass, for if they get by without being filled, we will have wasted them”. No mind-set could be worse for losing yourself in a book.
  So what does work? Perhaps surprisingly, scheduling regular times for reading. You’d think this might fuel the efficiency mind-set, but in fact, Eberle notes, such ritualistic behaviour helps us “step outside time’s flow” into “soul time”. You could limit distractions by reading only physical books, or on single-purpose e-readers. “Carry a book with you at all times” can actually work, too-providing you dip in often enough, so that reading becomes the default state from which you temporarily surface to take care of business, before dropping back down. On a really good day, it no longer feels as if you’re “making time to read,” but just reading, and making time for everything else.

  31. The usual time-management techniques don’t work because?????
  [A] what they can offer does not ease the modern mind
  [B] what challenging books demand is repetitive reading
  [C] what people often forget is carrying a book with them
  [D] what deep reading requires cannot be guaranteed
  32. The “empty bottles” metaphor illustrates that people feel a pressure to?????
  [A] update their to-do lists
  [B] make passing time fulfilling
  [C] carry their plans through
  [D] pursue carefree reading
  33. Eberle would agree that scheduling regular times for reading helps?????
  [A] encourage the efficiency mind-set
  [B] develop online reading habits
  [C] promote ritualistic reading
  [D] achieve immersive reading
  34. “Carry a book with you at all times” can work if?????
  [A] reading becomes your primary business of the day
  [B] all the daily business has been promptly dealt with
  [C] you are able to drop back to business after reading
  [D] time can be evenly split for reading and business
  35. The best title for this text could be?????
  [A] How to Enjoy Easy Reading
  [B] How to Find Time to Read
  [C] How to Set Reading Goals
  [D] How to Read Extensively

  31 答案 D what deep reading requires cannot be guaranteed.
  解析:因果細節題。題干指出:傳統的時間管理方法不起作用的原因是什么。根據題干定位到第二段首句指出the usual time-management techniques don’t seem sufficient,是題干的同義替換,但要找原因。整段都在分析過程環節,最終原因必然在該段末句提到。直接定位到該段末句,指出深入閱讀不僅需要時間,而且是一種僅僅通過有效無法獲得的一種時間。結合選項D,深入閱讀所需的無法得到確保,是原文末句的同義替換。

  32 答案 B make passing time fulfilling
  解析:題干問的是“empty bottles”暗喻證明了人們在做什么方面有壓力,empty bottles直接可以在文中Gary Eberle所說的話中找到:“The future comes at us like empty bottles…”。其所說的話證明的目的必然是為了說明前一句的觀點。因此,該題定位到三段“try to slot…but not the most fulfilling kind”,該句就指出:只會處理目標集中的閱讀,這是有用的,但不是最有滿足感的。結合選項B使流逝的時間更有滿足感,是原文的同義替換。

  33 答案 D achieve immersive reading
  解析:文中人物觀點題,注意區分文中人物觀點和作者觀點。題干問的是Eberle贊同為閱讀設定規定性時間幫助什么。根據題干精確定位到第四段第二句:“You’d think this might fuel the efficiency mind-set, but in fact, E…..into soul time”,意思是你會認為這可以提升效率性思維設定,但實際上這些行為幫助我們跨入到靈魂閱讀時間。對應選項D,獲得深入閱讀,屬于同義替換。

  34 答案 A reading becomes your primary business of the day
  解析:細節題。題干指出:總是帶一本書會起作用如果怎么樣。根據題干定位到末段中間部分“carry a book with you at all times can actually work, too … so that reading becomes the default state from which you temporarily surface to take care of business.”,意思是這樣的話閱讀就成為默認狀態,偶爾會出來管理工作(注意business并非默認狀態,非主要事情)。對應選項A 閱讀成為每天的主要任務,是該句的同義替換。

  35 答案 B How to Find Time to Read

  Text 4
  Against a backdrop of drastic changes in economy and population structure, younger Americans are drawing a new 21st-century road map to success, a latest poll has found.
  Across generational lines, Americans continue to prize many of the same traditional milestones of a successful life, including getting married, having children, owning a home, and retiring in their sixties. But while young and old mostly agree on what constitutes the finish line of a fulfilling life, they offer strikingly different paths for reaching it.
  Young people who are still getting started in life were more likely than older adults to prioritize personal fulfillment in their work, to believe they will advance their careers most by regularly changing jobs, to favor communities with more public services and a faster pace of life, to agree that couples should be financially secure before getting married or having children, and to maintain that children are best served by two parents working outside the home, the survey found.
  From career to community and family, these contrasts suggest that in the aftermath of the searing Great Recession, those just starting out in life are defining priorities and expectations that will increasingly spread through virtually all aspects of American life, from consumer preferences to housing patterns to politics.
  Young and old converge on one key point: Overwhelming majorities of both groups said they believe it is harder for young people today to get started in life than it was for earlier generations. While younger people are somewhat more optimistic than their elders about the prospects for those starting out today, big majorities in both groups believe those “just getting started in life” face a tougher a good-paying job, starting a family, managing debt, and finding affordable housing.
  Pete Schneider considers the climb tougher today. Schneider, a 27-yaear-old auto technician from the Chicago suburbs says he struggled to find a job after graduating from college. Even now that he is working steadily, he said.”  I can’t afford to pay ma monthly mortgage payments on my own, so I have to rent rooms out to people to mark that happen.” Looking back, he is struck that his parents could provide a comfortable life for their?children even though neither had completed college when he was young. “I still grew up in an upper middle-class home with parents who didn’t have college degrees,” Schneider said. “I don’t think people are capable of that anymore.”

  36. One cross-generation mark of a successful life is_____.????
  [A] trying out different lifestyles
  [B] having a family with children
  [C] working beyond retirement age
  [D] setting up a profitable business
  37. It can be learned from Paragraph 3 that young people tend to?____.???
  [A] favor a slower life pace
  [B] hold an occupation longer
  [C] attach importance to pre-marital finance
  [D] give priority to childcare outside the home
  38. The priorities and expectations defined by the young will?____.???
  [A] become increasingly clear
  [B] focus on materialistic issues
  [C] depend largely on political preferences
  [D] reach almost all aspects of American life
  39. Both young and old agree that?____.
  [A] good-paying jobs are less available
  [B] the old made more life achievements
  [C] housing loans today are easy to obtain
  [D] getting established is harder for the young
  40. Which of the following is true about Schneider?
  [A] He found a dream job after graduating from college.
  [B] His parents believe working steadily is a must for success.
  [C] His parents’ good life has little to do with a college degree.
  [D] He thinks his job as a technician quite challenging.

  36 答案 B having a family with children
  解析:此題是細節題。根據關鍵詞定位到第二段第一句Across generational lines,…including getting married, having children…即成功的標志包括結婚生子,故而正確選項是B having a family with children.

  37 答案 C attach importance to pre-marital finance
  解析:此題是細節題。根據關鍵詞定位到第三段第一句Young people…to agree that couples should be financially secure before getting married or having children…即年輕人認為夫妻在結婚前或者生小孩前應該在經濟上是穩定的,故而C attach importance to pre-marital finance為正確答案。

  38 答案 D reach almost all aspect=respect 方面s of American life
  解析:此題是細節題。根據關鍵詞定位到第四段第一句…those just starting…will increasingly spread through virtually all aspects …即這些期待即將滲透到美國生活的各個方面,故而D reach almost all aspects of American life為正確答案。

  39 答案 D getting established is harder for the young
  解析:此題是文中人物觀點題。根據關鍵詞定位到第五段第一句…it is harder for young people today to get started in life than it was for earlier generations. 即與年長者相比,現如今的年輕人維持生計更加困難,故而D getting established is harder for the young為正確答案。

  40 答案  C His parents’ good life has little to do with a college degree.
  解析:此題是正誤判斷題。根據關鍵詞定位到第六段第五句Looking back…his parents could provide a comfortable life for the children even though neither had completed college when he was young.即父母即便沒有上過大學但仍舊可以為孩子提供舒適的生活,故而His parents’ good life has little to do with a college degree.為正確答案。

  Part B
  Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the list A-G for each of the numbered paragraphs(41-45).There are two extra subheadings which you do not need to use.Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.
  [A]Be silly
  [B]Have fun
  [C]Express your emotions
  [D]Don't overthink it
  [E]Be easily pleased
  [F]Notice things
  [G]Ask for help
  As adults,it seems that we are constantly pursuing happiness,often with mixed results.Yet children appear to have it down to an art-and for the most part they don't need self-help books or therapy.instead,they look after their wellbeing instinctively,and usually more effectively than we do as grownups.Perhaps it's time to learn a few lessons from them.
  What does a child do when he's sad? He cries.When he's angry?He shouts.Scared?Probably a bit of both.As we grow up,we learn to control our emotions so they are manageable and don't dictate our behaviours,which is in many ways a good thing.But too often we take this process too far and end up suppressing emotions,especially negative ones.that's about as effective as brushing dirt under a carpet and can even make us ill.What we need to do is find a way to acknowledge and express what we feel appropriately, and then-again like children-move.
  A couple of Christmases ago, my youngest stepdaughter, who was nine years old at the time, got a Superman T-shirt for Christmas. It cost less than a fiver but she was overjoyed, and couldn't stop talking about it.Too often we believe that a new job,bigger house or better car will be the magic silver bullet that will allow us to finally be content,but the reality is these things have very little lasting impact on our happiness levels. Instead, being grateful for small things every day is a much better way to improve wellbeing.
  Have you ever noticed how much children laugh? If we adults could indulge in a bit of silliness and giggling, we would reduce the stress hormones in our bodies , increase good hormones like endorphins, improve blood flow to our hearts and even have a greater chance of fighting off enfection. All of which, of course, have a positive effect on happiness levels.
  The problem with being a grown up is that there's an awful lot of serious stuff to deal with---work,mortgage payments,figuring out what to cook for dinner. But as adults we also have the luxury of being able to control our own diaries and it's important that we schedule in time to enjoy the things we love.Those things might be social,sporting,creative or completely random(dancing aroud the living room,anyone?)--it doesn't matter,so long as they're enjoyable, and not likely to have negative side effects,such as drinking too much alcohol or going on a wild spending spree if you're on a tight budget.
  Having said all of the above, it's important to add that we shouldn't try too hard to be happy.Scientists tell us this can backfire and actually have a negative impact on our wellbeing. As the Chinese philosopher Chuang Tzu is reported to have said:"Happiness is the absence of striving for happiness."And in that,once more,we need to look to the example of our children,to whom happiness is not a goal but a natural by product of the way they live.


  41. C 表達情感。開頭以問句的方式:“孩子悲傷時會怎樣?孩子生氣時會如何?他們的表達方式與大人不同,成人更多會選擇壓抑情感,并且會有不好的后果,比如致病。緊接著最后一句算是總結句:我們要找到一種合適的方式表達,像孩子那樣。重點在哪里?整段不離的中心意思,重復的出現那就是情感的表達嘍。選項為 C

  42.E舉例子的目的無非是為了證明觀點。但是從例子也是可以總結出想要表達的意思的。講到一個小女孩因為一個廉價的圣誕禮物就可以高興,并且很快樂,就旨在講小小的幸福。再來看看例子后面的觀點。提到成人的世界里所謂的車啊,房啊之類的貌似會讓我們 幸福的東西其實不然。所以一個instead 直接把本段的中心意思表達了出來,那就是幸福來自于小小的事情。對應選項E

  43. A 一句話出現在第二句。問句之后,如果我們能夠“愚蠢“那么一點點,我們將會有各種好處,對不對。那么這一段幾乎大段的篇幅都花在這一句上了,主旨更加明顯那就是:去這樣做吧。Be silly.

  44.B 這一段講到成人的世界里的確有太多讓人煩惱的東西,But as adults we also have the luxury of being able to control our own diaries and it's important that we schedule in time to enjoy the things we love 享受自己喜歡的東西也是很重要的。接下來舉例子,各種具體事例說明那些我們可以做的可以享受的事情,并且最后說出了他們的好處。從前往后一直再說我們應該放松,享受。所以啊,在剩下的可選擇的選項中只有have funs比較合適了。

  45.D 不要可以去想怎樣才幸福,應用了哲人的一句話來說明這個道理,旨在告訴大家當讓是過程就是幸福的了。最后可以用排除法。G尋求幫助根本未提及。F 選項可以直接排除。那么對應關系,來看看D 不要想太多。“無欲無求,本就是幸福啦。“最終選定D。

  Section III Translation
  Translate the following text from English into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)

  46. Directions:
  Translate the following text into Chinese. Your translation should be written on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)
  The supermarket is designed to lure customers into spending as much time as possible within its doors. The reason for this is simple:The longer you stay in the store, the more stuff you'll see, and the more stuff you see, the more you'll buy. And supermarkets contain a lot of stuff. The average supermarket, according to the Food Marketing Institute, carries some 44,00 different items, and many carry tens of thousands more. The sheer volume of available choice is enough to send shoppers into a state of information overload. According to brain-scan experiments, the demands of so much decision-making quickly become too much for us. After about 40 minutes of shopping, most people stop struggling to be rationally selective, and instead begin shopping emotionally - which is the point at which we accumulate the 50 percent of stuff in our cart that we never intended buying.


  Section IV Writing

  Part A
  Suppose you won a translation contest and your friend Jack wrote an email to congratulate you, and ask advice on translation. Write him a reply to
  1)thank him;
  2)give your advice.
  You should write neatly on the ANWSER SHEET. Do not sign you own name at the end of the letter, use “Li Ming ” instead. Do not write the address .(10 point)


  Dear Jack,
  I’m writing to express my gratitude for your congratulation on my success in the translation contest.
  As regard to my experience, I would like to offer you some proposals in this part. First and foremost, I strongly suggest you that you need to practice with painstaking effort in this field. What’s more, you had better have more communication with foreigners, which guarantees that you have a deep understanding of foreign culture. Last but not least, you are supposed to participate in some international events to accumulate a wealth of practical experience.
  Thanks again and I do hope you could take my suggestions into consideration. I wish you have good luck and make a great success in your future study.
  Yours sincerely,
  Li Ming




  Suppose your cousin LI MING has just been admitted to a university write him/her a letter to:
 ?。?)Congratulate him/her,and
 ?。?)give him/her suggestions on how to get prepared for university life
  You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2. DO not sign your own name at the end of the letter,Use zhangwei.



  稱呼: Dear Jack注意稱呼中,后面的逗號不可丟,也不能寫成冒號。


  第一段:寫作內容需涵蓋兩點:寫信目的,表明感謝來自朋友的祝賀;可以采用這樣的表達方式:I’m writing to express my gratitude for your congratulation on my success in the translation contest.

  第二段: 寫作內容應以建議為主體。在這個過程中可以把日常我們如何提高的方式寫進正文,比如多加練習、多與外國人交流,多多接觸國際事務等。本篇老師主要從這些方面進行論述,表達如下As regard to my experience, I would like to offer you some proposals in this part. First and foremost, I strongly suggest you that you need to practice with painstaking effort in this field. What’s more, you had better have more communication with foreigners, which guarantees that you have a deep understanding of foreign culture. Last but not least, you are supposed to   participate in some international events to accumulate a wealth of practical experience.

  第三段:再次強調重申寫信目的,如Thanks again and I do hope you could take my suggestions into consideration. I wish you have good luck and make a great success in your future study.

  落款: Yours sincerely,  特別提醒sincerely后面逗號不能丟;簽名: Li Ming特別注意 Ming 后面一定不能出現句點。

  Part B
  Write an essay based on the following chart. you should
  1) interpret the chart and
  2) give your comments.
  You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET.(15 points).



  As is clearly reflected in the above pie chart, the purpose of students travelling abroad demonstrates obvious differences in one college of China. According to the data given, the purpose of enjoying the beautiful landscape takes a comparatively large share, accounting for 37%, while that of relieving pressure also takes away 20% of the whole proportion.
  What triggers this phenomenon? It is not difficult to put forward several factors responsible for this phenomenon. To start with, with the rapid economic development of economy, people, including college students, are becoming increasingly wealthy, which enables them to afford the once-deemed- expensive oversea traveling. In order to enjoy the charming landscape all around the world, a large proportion of students choose to travel abroad. What’s more, along with the ever-accelerating improvement of economy and society is also the ever-increasing work and life pressure. Consequently, the purpose of relieving pressure ranks the second among all the purposes for folks to travel around the world.
  In view of the arguments above, we can conclude that the current phenomenon is of no surprise. And therefore, it can be predicted that admiring the scenery and alleviating pressure will still be the main purpose for people to arrange a traveling to other countries.

  今年英語二作文的題目比較好寫,因為標題和圖示非常清晰明白。圖表顯示了某高校學生旅游目的調查, 考生分析原因的話也會很簡單。下面分三段簡要地說一下這三段應該怎么寫。


  第二段給出你的評論,主要寫這種情況的原因。主要要結合圖表描述的內容從兩個方面寫起。一方面為什么為了欣賞風景而旅行的目的占37%, 另一方面為什么緩解壓力會占到33%比例。



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